Transducer play a vital role in the field of instrumentation and control engineering. Any energy in a process needs to be converted from one form into another form to make the communication from one rectification sector to another. It is a device which converts one type of energy into another form i.e. the given non-electrical energy is converted into an electrical energy.
Types of transducer: The two main kinds of transducers, they are: Active transducers and Passive transducers. Active transducers: Active transducer is actually a device which converts the given non-electrical power into electrical power itself. Thermocouple, Multi Axis Force Sensor and a lot more are the best samples of the transducers
Passive transducers: Passive transducer is a device which converts the given non-electrical energy into electrical energy by external force. Resistance strain gauge, Differential Transformer are definitely the examples for your Passive transducers.
The piezoelectric effect is found in some materials (like quartz) with an atomic lattice structure forming a rhomboid or cubic cell. When pressure (mechanical stress) is applied to the structure, it generates an electrical charge and, when an electrical field is used, a mechanical deformation occurs. “Piezo” comes from the Greek word for pressure.
Piezo Transducer: A piezo transducer converts electric energy in mechanical energy or vice versa. Basically any kind of piezo mechanism can be called a transducer. Piezoelectrics can respond very rapidly to operate voltage changes and for that reason can be used to generate vibrations or sound. Piezo transducers are used in microphones, guitar sound pickups, speakers, buzzers, headphones, etc. The benefit of a piezo speaker more than a magnetically driven speaker depends on the simplicity, compactness, efficiency and robustness from the piezo ceramic plates that are utilized to move the speaker diaphragm film.
Sonar and ultrasound imaging will also be based upon Torque Transducer. In this instance, the ultrasonic transducers are driven at their mechanical resonance frequency, a phenomenon that greatly increases the amplitude while reducing the input power simultaneously, i.e. the program is operated at its highest efficiency.
Piezo Actuator vs. Transducer: In motion control applications, piezo mechanic elements are generally known as a piezo actuators. A piezo actuator is usually used to generate forces or position loads very precisely. In motion control applications piezo actuators are often operated well below their mechanical resonant frequency.
Piezo resistive sensors: Piezoresistive sensors are low-cost, mass produced, typically silicon-based sensors which can be very widely used for pressure sensing applications. They are sometimes used combined with piezo actuators to supply position feedback or force feedback, for example on closed-loop microscope positioning stages. Piezoresistive means that the resistance changes with the applied pressure. Unlike piezo sensors, piezoresistive sensors do not produce a charge (energy) plus they cannot convert mechanical in electrical energy and vice versa. In precision nano-positioning applications, piezoresistive sensors are a good selection for entry-level systems. Other sensors can be purchased when leading edge performance is necessary.
Lifetime of Piezo Mechanic Actuators: If operated beneath the right conditions, the most recent generation of ceramic-encapsulated actuators can work for 10’s of huge amounts of cycles.
Vibration Cancellation / Active Damping: Because of their fast response piezo mechanic actuators are a great selection for active vibration cancellation.
Here, a vibration sensor must give you the controller the right information on how to counteract the mechanical vibration through providing the right amplitude and phase output to the piezo actuator. The sensor could even be a piezo ceramic transducer, configured to answer strain or pressure.
Momentum Compensation / Active Damping: Any type of rapid actuation may cause vibrations in a work piece. In accordance with Newton’s laws, this means, the faster a piezo mechanical system operates, the better reactive forces it hdjjdy cause. In the event these forces are unwanted, another piezo mechanical system with a counter mass may be integrated and driven having a signal in the opposite phase. With a bit of fine-tuning the forces of both actuators will cancel each other out as well as the work piece are now able to move quickly but without exerting any force on the surrounding structures. This trick is frequently found in fast Jr S Beam Load Cell for image stabilization in astronomical telescopes.
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